Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Research Paper Writing Help - How to Get the Research Paper Writing Help That You Need

Research Paper Writing Help - How to Get the Research Paper Writing Help That You NeedWriting a research paper is very important for anyone in the school or university world. Students have to write papers about various topics to do a study or give an exam. They have to write several papers each semester and work hard at it. It is not easy though but with the right research paper writing help, you can get the research paper that you want and also give out good grades.First thing you need to do when you are getting a research paper written is finding out some research papers tips. You will find a lot of internet resources that are providing such a service. The most important thing you need to remember when writing the research paper is to come up with your own research paper writing help.This is the best way to know if you are doing a good job in writing the research paper. The research paper writing help can be the help you need when you are going for your dissertation or thesis on yo ur own or when you are doing a project for a class.There are many other things you need to think about when writing your own research paper. The first thing you need to do is to find out about some resources that are providing such services. You can search the internet or you can visit some universities to see their research papers. Once you get an idea of what you need to do, you can start on your research.If you are not very good at writing a research paper then you can ask for help from a college or university. This is a great way to get the research paper writing help you need. You can also ask your teacher if he or she can help you.You should always look for someone who is experienced in this field. Most of the times, people want to know how to get their research paper to go well. You need someone who can advise you on things that you need to know and advise you on how to prepare your paper. Many research papers are needed for graduation or another formal purpose.You need to th ink about this when you need to write your research paper. You need to check out how good the research paper writing help is so that you can get the best help possible. There are many different resources you can use to get the research paper writing help that you need. So go ahead and check out these resources and get the research paper writing help that you need.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Cultural Diversity A Health Care Professional - 1396 Words

As a health care professional you should be aware of cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is the existence of different ethnic groups in the same society. It is important to be knowledgeable about cultural diversity so you can understand and respect someone else who has their own unique way of doing things in their life. The United States is one of the countries that have the most cultural diversity. One of the cultures that exist in the United States is the Mexican culture. Mexicans come from Central American Indians, Native Americans, Spanish, and Africans. The majority of Mexican immigrants live in Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Florida, New Mexico, and Texas. However, Los Angeles has the highest Mexican population. People†¦show more content†¦In Mexico about 85% of the population is Catholic, 10% is Protestants and less than 5% are Jewish. As a result, health care professionals should keep in mind different religious traditions. For example, Catholics have sp ecial requests when dealing with ill people. It’s important for Catholics to have sacraments and blessings before surgery and whenever they are at risk of death. When a patient is near death, they might request a priest to offer them â€Å"Sacrament of the Sick†. Some Catholics patients would want to maintain religious objects such as rosary, scapula or a religious metal during the procedures. Therefore, the health care professional should discuss the options that they have dealing with their objects. For instance, the patient could have their object seal in a bag to prevent contamination during the procedure, but if the object contains metal and they are going to have a radiological test then the family would have to bring in a non-metal object. In addition, patients who are Catholics might request non-meat diets during the late-winter time of Lent which is 40 days before Easter. Besides, the Mexicans people also light candles and pray for Saints. Each saint has a uni que as well general religious function. For example, St. Peregrine is associated with cancer, St. Joseph is associated with dying and Our Lady of Lourdes is related to the bodily ills. When a person gets sick the people who care about them and believe in this religion will pray to one of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Explication of Wallace Stevens Snowman - 1399 Words

Wallace Stevens explores the perception of a January winter scene in his poem â€Å"The Snow Man.† The poem occurs over the space of five unrhymed stanzas, three lines each, and is contained to a single, deceptively simple sentence. Within this sentence, semicolons split up the viewer’s actions as the speaker expands on the necessities of the scenery. Rather than that which is perceived, it is the act of perception on which the poem focuses, and passive verbs predominantly characterize this central action, imposing conditions on the viewer and the winter scene which is viewed. In this way, the poem is concerned with unification of time and distance, organizing a single instance of perception into multiple actions as the viewer’s mind and body†¦show more content†¦At the peak of winter, trees are â€Å"shagged with ice,† having sat in one place for the duration of the season. The mind of winter which regards the scene is therefore required to have sat still alongside the scenery, and so the adjectives describing the trees should be read as interchangeable with those describing the viewer. In the sense that trees with rough textures are made rougher by the frost, the onslaught of winter only reinforces what was already an aspect of nature, unifying what has been and what is. Though trees may take on an organic, shifting quality as they continue to grow, the junipers and spruces of this poem, already prickly harsh, are frozen in these perpetual states by the cold. Junipers, harsh trees meant to last through the winter, are â€Å"shagged with ice,† so that the ice only exaggerates what was already true about the texture of these trees. The same is true of the following line, in which spruces are made â€Å"rough in the distant glitter,† enforcing the preexisting nature of evergreens, as they remain the same throughout the year. The second stanza spills into the third without punctuation to create a pause. The space between the two stanzas seems to reinforce the distance of â€Å"the distant glitter // of the January sun,† which puts an end to the second sub-act of perception, as there is a semicolon after â€Å"sun.† In explicitly citing the month, the speaker has at the beginning of the third stanza finally grounded the poem in a specific

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Strategies of Circuit City Samples †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Business Strategies of Circuit City. Answer: Introduction Circuit City which was built in the year 1949 by Samuel S. Wurtzel was launched for the first time in Richmond in Virginia under the name Wards Company. The company at first opened as a retail store that started its business by marketing television and home appliances. In the year 1959, the company launched its first four stores and became public in the year 1961 and earned a revenue of $246 million in the year 1983 (Campbell 2014). However, the company struggled to run its business by the end of 2008 when it closes its 155 stores. The last nail on the coffin was struck when in the year 2009, the company ultimately decided the liquidation of its assets by closing 567 stores where 34,000 people used to work. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons behind the failure of the company. This suggests that the report will discuss the business strategies that were implemented by the company. The scope of the study is to discuss and implement the strategies that will help the company to perform and compete efficiently in the long run. Analysis Circuit city was an electrical appliance company that first launched in the year 1949 by Samuel S. Wurtzel in the Richmond city of Virginia. The company at first came up as retail store under the name Wards and started its business by selling television and electrical home appliances. In the year 1959, the company launched its first four stores and became public in the year 1961 and earned a revenue of $246 million in the year 1983 (Kim, and Min, 2015). Gradually, within the year 1969 to 1982, the company started growing by purchasing quite a few retailers of electronic appliances across the United States and changed its name from Wards to Circuit City which enabled the company to enroll its name in the New York Stock Exchange. The revenue of the company continued to increase reaching $2 billion in the year 1990 and the company launched a subsidiary store of name CarMax, that stared selling used vehicles in the year 1993 (Bertuglia, Bianchi and Mela 2012). In the year 2002, the compa ny declared that in order to focus completely on the consumer electronics retails, the company would sell its subsidiary CarMax. Till this the situations were stable, but by the late 2008, the company were in a state of serious trouble for which its 155 stores were closed. The company ultimately shut down in the year 16th January 2009 when it closed down its 567 stores in which 34000 employees used to work (Hava et al. 2014). The main reason for the failure of the company that has been cited by the CEO is the companys incompetent business strategies. According to the CEO of the company the business strategies which were formed during the launching of the company was not efficient enough to compete with the business models of the modern companys like Best Buy (Rothaermel 2015). The main focus of Circuit City was on the short-term profit of the company while the focus of Best Buy was on the business strategies of the company. Conclusion The report concludes by stating the major differences of business strategies between Circuit City and Best Buy. While Circuit City paid attention to the short term profit of the company, Best Buy focused on the sales from its newly created stores. Thus, the purpose of the research clearly points out the business strategies that should have been executed by Circuit City to compete effectively with Best Buy. References Bertuglia, C.S., Bianchi, G. and Mela, A. eds., 2012.The city and its sciences. Springer Science Business Media. Campbell, T.A., 2014. What could have been done? Circuit city: A case study ofmanagement and employee performance failure.Performance Improvement,53(4), pp.16-23. Hava, A., Qin, J., Bernstein, J.B. and Bot, Y., 2013, January. Integrated circuit reliability prediction based on physics-of-failure models in conjunction with field study. InReliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2013 Proceedings-Annual (pp. 1-6). IEEE. Kim, S.K. and Min, S., 2015. Business model innovation performance: When does adding a new business model benefit an incumbent?Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal,9(1), pp.34-57. Rothaermel, F.T., 2015. Strategic management. McGraw-Hill Education.

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

Anti Oppression Pcs Model Essay Example

Anti Oppression Pcs Model Paper Evaluate the importance of anti oppressive practice in social work. Illustrate your answer using the PCS model. Within this essay the areas in which discrimination and oppression occur will be highlighted and then evaluated to show how ‘good’ anti oppressive/ discriminative practice within social work can ‘aid’ and empower service users who are in groups that experience oppression and discrimination to overcome their problems. Gil (1994) states that â€Å"the conditions that cause people to seek help from social services are usually direct or indirect consequences of social, economic, and political institutions, and he profession of social work is ethically committed to promote social justice. Insights into oppression and social justice, and into ways of overcoming them, are therefore essential aspects of the foundations of social work knowledge†. In addition to this, this essay will discuss the importance for social workers to have a clear understand ing that â€Å"discrimination is the process (or a set of processes) that leads to oppression† and that in order â€Å"To challenge oppression, it is therefore necessary to challenge discrimination. (Thompson 2001) This essay will draw attention to the importance of this understanding as within social work practice there is a danger that social workers could reinforce the oppression and discrimination against their service user, â€Å" There is no middle ground: intervention either adds to oppression (or at least condones it) or goes some small way towards easing or breaking such oppression. † (Thompson 1992) Thompson’s PCS model is extremely useful in aiding social workers to accurately examine and understand the impact that oppression, discrimination and inequality has on the â€Å"social circumstances of clients† and on the â€Å"interactions between clients and the welfare state. † (Thompson, 2001) The first level of Thompson’s PCS model ‘P’ relates to the importance that the personal â€Å"thoughts, feelings, attitudes and actions† (Thompson, 2001) of the service user are and it also represents how the service user’s interests and ideas should be at the centre of good anti-discriminatory/oppressive social work practice. This level also demonstrates how personal prejudices (such as stereotyping) can influence the way in which social workers relate to their service user and can prevent social workers from practicing in an anti-discriminatory/oppressive manner. It therefore is vital that social workers understand the importance of eliminating oppression and discrimination from their lives as well as their practice as â€Å"There would seem to be little point in developing anti-discriminatory practice within a work context if we contribute to the continuation of discrimination and oppression through our actions and attitudes in our private lives. (Thompson, Men and Anti-Sexism, 1995). Social workers should remain aware that our personal â€Å"thoughts, feelings, attitudes and actions are to a certain extent unique and individualised, but we must also recognise the powerful role of culture in forming our opinions and guiding our actions† (Thompson, 2001) through tools such as the â€Å"media and political propaganda† (Thompson, 2001) which can cause social workers to form personal prejudices and prevent them from remaining neutral, as their opinions will be influenced and this will inevitably impact on how they relate to certain service users when practising. We will write a custom essay sample on Anti Oppression Pcs Model specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Anti Oppression Pcs Model specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Anti Oppression Pcs Model specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Whitehouse (1986) supports this view, as he suggests that â€Å"if the social worker has stereotypical expectations and attitudes then he or she will tend to select information to confirm them. † He further suggests that this will have implications on the assessment as, if a social worker does make the â€Å"persons under assessment perceive themselves to be the object of a categorical or stereotypical assessment, they will tend to withdraw from interaction, to give as little information and collaboration as possible. † (Thompson, 2001) The second level of Thompson’s PCS model ‘C’ is the ‘cultural level’ and represents how society (through socialisation) influences the way we think and behave by enforcing shared social values and cultural norms; â€Å"Society not only controls our movements, but shapes our identity, our thoughts and our emotions. The structures of society become the structure of our own consciousness. Society does not stop at the surface our skins. Society penetrates us† (Berger, 1966). Social workers must be aware about how â€Å"discriminatory culture can subtly but powerfully influence† (Thompson, 2001) them. They therefore should ensure that they are culturally aware and also prevent their own social values and culture norms from attempting to influence, discriminate or oppress any service user. In addition to this, social workers must appreciate and avoid whenever possible ‘light-hearted’ discriminatory humour as it may influence their practice and illustrate to their service user that they are supporting and reinforcing societies oppressive ideologies; which for many service users may be seen as offensive and may cause communication and trust between the social worker and service user to deteriorate. The third level of Thompson’s PCS model ‘S’ is the ‘structural level’ which â€Å"relates to the ways in which oppression and discrimination are institutionalised and thus ‘sewn in’ to the fabric of society. † (Thompson, 2001) â€Å"Racism is oppression based on colour. † (Bishop,1994) therefore social workers must be aware of the extent and impact that racism has on the wide range of ethnic minorities that they work with. They must be culturally aware and promote ethnically sensitive social work practice to ensure that the minority groups that they work with do not feel oppressed or discriminated against in any way. Therefore to develop a strong anti racist social work practice base, social workers must first have a clear understanding of the concepts that underpin racism. Racism is â€Å"a social system in which one group of people exercises power over another group on the basis of skin colour† because of â€Å"an implicit set of beliefs, erroneous assumptions, and actions based on an ideology of inherent superiority of one racial group over another† (Henry, Tator, Mattis and Rees 1995: pg 10) (Thompson,1997). Dalrymple and Burke, (1995) support this view as they suggest that â€Å"Oppression itself is a powerful force. On a personal level it can lead to demoralisation and lack of self-esteem, while at a structural level it can lead to denial of rights†. Thompson’s PCS model also effectively stresses the complex nature surrounding the issue of racism within society and social work. Thompson’s ‘P’ level suggests that â€Å"personal prejudices†¦ manifests itself much more subtly and we are not likely to be aware of it unless or until we are confronted†. Thompson, 2001) Thompson further implies that social workers may sometimes unintentionally perform racist acts simply by â€Å"reflecting dominant cultural values or carrying out routine institutional practices† (Thompson, 2001). Macpherson (1999) draws attention to this point even further, suggesting that â€Å"collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people. † Another form of discrimination is sexism and â€Å"is the belief that one sex is superior to the other† (Dubois and Miley,1996) and this notion is based upon â€Å"a deep-rooted, often unconscious system of beliefs, attitudes and institutions in which distinctions between people’s intrinsic worth are made on the grounds of their sex and sexual roles (Bullock and Stallybrass,1977). Thompson’s PCS model reflects the extent in which sexism can oppress women (at all three levels, personal, cultural and structural) through â€Å"The beliefs and actions of individuals, the cultural values and norms and the institutional or structural patterns† which â€Å"all tend to display inherent bias against women† (Thompson, 2001). It is therefore vital that as social workers we ensure that we do not reinforce these sexist stereotypes and aim to work anti-oppressively; to do this we must understand that â€Å"It is not possible to understand the personal or social world without taking a gendered perspective. We are not able as professionals to intervene appropriately or justly in people’s lives unless we perceive the ways in which women are disadvantaged by an unequal dispersal of power and in which both men and women are constrained by over rigid and falsely dichotomised role and relationship expectations. † (Thompson, 2001). Examples to which sexist stereotypes can lead to oppression can be seen in child abuse and neglect cases. The stereotypical response would be to direct all the questions towards the mother however this can lead to â€Å"mother blaming and reinforcing the notion that women carry the primary responsibility for the family. Therefore in two parent families social workers should address both of the parents to avoid any discriminatory and oppressive practice. Another example where social work reinforces sexist stereotypes is within community care, where women are encouraged to fill caring positions as â€Å"sexist ideology leads us to believe that it is â €˜natural’ for women to be carers†. (Thompson, 2001). In addition to this as Rojek et al (1988) suggests, it common knowledge that social workers often represent women as â€Å"helpless and not coping in order to gain additional resources for them. Social workers should avoid this method as it can lead to the service user becoming dependant on this strategy of acting ‘helpless’ as a means of coping with any problem that they are presented with and therefore this is extremely oppressive and not empowering to the service user. Within the PCS model it is clear that in order to practice in an anti-sexist manner, social workers must challenge â€Å"dominant discriminatory attitudes, practices and structures† (Thompson, 2001) and highlight sexism in order to combat discrimination and oppression based on gender. In addition to this, yet another area in which social workers must practice in an anti-oppressive manner is when working with the elderly. Thompson (1993) defines ageism as a â€Å"tendency to devalue older people and overemphasize the negative aspects of later life† Thompson (1993) and suggests that it is a â€Å"social process through which negative images of and attitudes towards older people, based solely on the characteristics of old age itself, result in discrimination. † (Thompson, 2001). Butler (Phillipson, 2000) suggests that oppression occurs at all three levels of Thompson’s PCS model through â€Å"stereotypes†¦discriminatory practices in housing and employment† and a â€Å"defined retirement age. † Ontology explains the relationship between old age with the loss of meaning and selfhood in life. Through anti-oppressive social work practice it is vital that we allow old persons to keep their own values and dignity, and empower the individual (regardless of their age) to be independent and think for themselves whenever possible and encourage them to partake in outside activities that stimulate their minds and create a purpose in life. Disablism relates to the â€Å"combination of social forces, cultural values and personal prejudices which marginalises disabled people, portrays them in a negative light and thus oppresses them† (Thompson, 2001). Oliver (1989) supports this argument when defining the social model that underpins the concept of disablism he suggests that, â€Å"The rise of the disabled peoples movement and, especially, its definition of the problems of disability as a social oppression has given rise to the concept of disablism, which simply means any ideas or practices which contribute to oppression of disabled people rather than their emancipation. The individual model of disability, both as a set of idea and as a basis for practice, is itself disabilist in that it furthers the existing oppression of disabled people. † Using Thompson’s PCS analysis, disablism can be seen to operate at all three levels. At the personal level, personal prejudice toward disabled people is an everyday occurrence and is reflected through the attitudes and assumptions that are made about disabled people. At the cultural level, â€Å"Dominant cultural norms are usually geared towards the able bodied majority and popular notions present disabled people as either misfits or pathetic victims of personal tragedy† (Thompson, 2001) and as social workers we must not allow ourselves to participate in ‘light-hearted’ discriminatory humour (which is extremely discriminatory, oppressive, abusive and offensive) that reinforces these negative stereotypes. At the structural level the lack of consideration for people with disabilities with regards to access to public services and buildings leads to disabled people feeling â€Å"structurally/institutionally defined as a marginalised group ; that is, they do not feel as part of the ‘general public’. † (Thompson, 2001). Shearer (1981) argues that â€Å"the focus should be less on how disabled people can or should adjust to their impairment and more on how society can adjust to the needs of disabled people. † (Thompson, 1997). Traditional social work practice focuses primarily on practically â€Å"matching available services to assessed need† (Thompson, 1997). Oliver (1983) supports this view as he suggests that the practical approach is simply â€Å"the matching of resources within a legal and statutory framework. Social workers should therefore not simply use just the practical method without understanding the needs of the service user, as this can contribute enormously towards the discrimination and oppression of those with disabilities and therefore acts as â€Å"an additional form of oppression that is instrumental in constructing and image of disabled people as helpless and not able to contribute to mainstream society† (Thompson, 1997). Oliver (1987) goes onto further crit icise â€Å"the ‘professionalism’ of service for disabled people, on the assumption that the professionals know best what disabled people need and are in charge. The provision of services in such a way is at best at patronising, and at worst further disabling, since disabled people may be pushed into becoming passive recipients of the kinds of services other people think they ought to have. † Therefore to work anti oppressively when working with service users with disabilities, social workers should create a partnership with their service users instead of treating them as â€Å"dependent or childlike† they should see them as â€Å"an oppressed group who are denied the assistance they need† (Thompson,1997). In conclusion, the way forward for social work with regards to anti oppressive and discriminatory practice is to not follow the traditional social work guidelines which focus mainly on the â€Å"individual level with limited recognition to culture, values and shared meanings† (Thompson,1997); and to instead work in an anti discriminatory manner which focuses and is inclusive of all of Thompson’s (PCS model) three levels (personal, cultural and structural) and highlights and explains how they impact on one another and on the service user. Social workers should understand the importance of having a wide sophisticated knowledge base when it comes to working with oppressed groups as they can either be seen to be â€Å"challenging and undermining†¦ the discrimination that their clients are subject; or tactically condoning and thus reinforcing such discrimination. There is no middle road. † (Thompson,1997) Therefore it is key that all social workers partake in awareness training so that social workers can at the P level be aware and identify their personal prejudices etc and at the C level work towards challenging oppressive culture. Awareness training therefore begins the process of challenging and confronting discrimination† (Thompson,1997). References: Neil Thompson (1993), Anti-discriminatory practice, Palgrave Neil Thompson (1997), Anti-discriminatory practice, 2nd edition, Palgrave Neil Thompson (2001), Anti-discriminatory practice, 3rd edition, Palgrave Berger P. L (1966), Invitation to Sociology, Harmondsworth, Penguin Bullock and Stallybrass (1977), Cited from Thompson Anti discriminatory practice/ Neil Thompson, 3rd ed, Palgrave, 2001, Date accessed: December 21st 2009 Dalrymple and Burke, (1995), Anti Oppressive, Social Care and the Law, Buckingham, Open University Press Dubois and Miley, (1996), Cited from: http://aosw. socialwork. dal. ca/theory. html, Date accessed: December 29th 2009, December 21st 2009 Gil (1994), Cited from: http://aosw. socialwork. dal. ca/theory. html, Date accessed: December 29th 2009 Henry, F. , Tator, C. , Mathis, W. Rees, T. (1995), Cited from: http://aosw. socialwork. dal. ca/theory. tml, Date accessed: December 29th 2009 Macpherson (1999), Cited from: Anti-discriminatory practice / Neil Thompson, 3rd edition, Palgrave, 2001, Date accessed: December 22nd 2009 Oliver (1983), Shearer (1981), Cited from Thompson Anti discriminatory practice/ Neil Thompson, 2nd ed, Palgrave, 1997, Date accessed: January 10th 2010 Oliver (1987), Cited from Thompson Anti discriminatory practice/ Neil Thompson, 2nd ed, Palgrave, 1997, Date accessed: January 10th 2010 Oliver (1989), Cited from Thompson Anti discriminatory practice/ Neil Thompson, 3rd ed, Palgrave, 2001, Date accessed: December 23rd 2009 Phillipson (2000), Cited from: Anti-discriminatory practice / Neil Thompson, 3rd edition, Palgrave, 2001, Date accessed: December 24th 2009 Rojek et al (1988), Cited from Thompson Anti discriminatory practice/ Neil Thompson, 3rd ed, Palgrave, 2001, Date accessed: December 26th 2009 Shearer (1981), Cited from Thompson Anti discriminatory practice/ Neil Thompson, 2nd ed, Palgrave, 1997, Date accessed: January 10th 2010 Thompson, Men and Anti-Sexism, (1995), Cited from http://bjsw. oxfordjournals. org/cgi/reprint/25/4/459, Date accessed: 22nd December 2009 Whitehouse. P, (1986), Cited from: Anti-discriminatory practice / Neil Thompson, 3rd edition, Palgrave, 2001, Date accessed: December 24th 2009 Bibliography: Neil Thompson (1993), Anti-discriminatory practice, Palgrave Neil Thompson (1997), Anti-discriminatory practice, 2nd edition, Palgrave Neil Thompson (2001), Anti-discriminatory practice, 3rd edition, Palgrave Berger P. L (1966), Invitation to Sociology, Harmondsworth, Penguin Bullock and Stallybrass (1977), Dictionary of Modern Thought, London, Fontana Davies (2000), The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Social Work, Oxford, Blackwell Dalrymple and Burke, (1995), Anti Oppressive, Social Care and the Law, Buckingham, Open University Press Henry, F. , Tator, C. , Mathis, W. Rees, T. (1995). The Colour of Democracy:Racism in Canadian Society. Toronto: Harcourt Press. Macpherson Report (1999), The Stephen Lawerence Inquiry, http://www. archive. official-documents. co. k/document/cm42/4262/4262. htm, Date accessed: December 30th 2009 Peter Burke and Jonathan Parker (2007), Rojek et al (1988), Social Work and Received Ideas, London, Routledge Social work and disadvantage: addressing the roots of stigma through association (2007), Peter Burke and Jonathan Parker, Jessica Kingsley Publishers Thompson, Men and Anti-Sexism, (1995), Cited from http://bjsw. oxfordjournals. org/cgi/reprint/25/4/459, Date accessed: 22 nd December 2009 Whitehouse. P, (1986), Race and the Criminal Justice System, in Coobe and Little (1986)

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Yeats and The Symbolism of Poetry

Yeats and 'The Symbolism of Poetry' One of the greatest poets of the 20th century and a recipient of the Nobel Prize, William Butler Yeats spent his early childhood in Dublin and Sligo before moving with his parents to London. His first volumes of poetry, influenced by the symbolism of William Blake and Irish folklore and myth, are more romantic and dreamlike than his later work, which is generally more highly regarded. Composed in 1900, Yeatss influential essay The Symbolism of Poetry offers an extended definition of symbolism and a meditation on the nature of poetry in general. The Symbolism of Poetry    Symbolism, as seen in the writers of our day, would have no value if it were not seen also, under one disguise or another, in every great imaginative writer, writes Mr. Arthur Symons in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, a subtle book which I cannot praise as I would, because it has been dedicated to me; and he goes on to show how many profound writers have in the last few years sought for a philosophy of poetry in the doctrine of symbolism, and how even in countries where it is almost scandalous to seek for any philosophy of poetry, new writers are following them in their search. We do not know what the writers of ancient times talked of among themselves, and one bull is all that remains of Shakespeares talk, who was on the edge of modern times; and the journalist is convinced, it seems, that they talked of wine and women and politics, but never about their art, or never quite seriously about their art. He is certain that no one who had a philosophy of his art, or a theory of ho w he should write, has ever made a work of art, that people have no imagination who do not write without forethought and afterthought as he writes his own articles. He says this with enthusiasm, because he has heard it at so many comfortable dinner-tables, where some one had mentioned through carelessness, or foolish zeal, a book whose difficulty had offended indolence, or a man who had not forgotten that beauty is an accusation. Those formulas and generalisations, in which a hidden sergeant has drilled the ideas of journalists and through them the ideas of all but all the modern world, have created in their turn a forgetfulness like that of soldiers in battle, so that journalists and their readers have forgotten, among many like events, that Wagner spent seven years arranging and explaining his ideas before he began his most characteristic music; that opera, and with it modern music, arose from certain talks at the house of one Giovanni Bardi of Florence; and that the Plà ©iade laid the foundations of modern French literature with a pamphlet. Goethe has said, a poet needs all philosophy, but he must keep it out of his work, though that is not always necessary; and almost certainly no great art, outside England, where journalists are more powerful and ideas less plentiful than elsewhere, has arisen without a great criticism, for its herald or its interpreter and protector, and it may be for this reason that great art, now that vulgarity has armed itself and multiplied itself, is perhaps dead in England. All writers, all artists of any kind, in so far as they have had any philosophical or critical power, perhaps just in so far as they have been deliberate artists at all, have had some philosophy, some criticism of their art; and it has often been this philosophy, or this criticism, that has evoked their most startling inspiration calling into outer life some portion of the divine life, or of the buried reality, which could alone extinguish in the emotions what their philosophy or their criticism would extinguish in the intellect. They have sought for no new thing, it may be, but only to understand and to copy the pure inspiration of early times, but because the divine life wars upon our outer life, and must needs change its weapons and its movements as we change ours, inspiration has come to them in beautiful startling shapes. The scientific movement brought with it a literature, which was always tending to lose itself in externalities of all kinds, in opinion, in declamation, in pic turesque writing, in word-painting, or in what Mr. Symons has called an attempt to build in brick and mortar inside the covers of a book; and new writers have begun to dwell upon the element of evocation, of suggestion, upon what we call the symbolism in great writers. II In Symbolism in Painting, I tried to describe the element of symbolism that is in pictures and sculpture, and described a little the symbolism in poetry, but did not describe at all the continuous indefinable symbolism which is the substance of all style. There are no lines with more melancholy beauty than these by Burns: The white moon is setting behind the white wave,And Time is setting with me, O! and these lines are perfectly symbolical. Take from them the whiteness of the moon and of the wave, whose relation to the setting of Time is too subtle for the intellect, and you take from them their beauty. But, when all are together, moon and wave and whiteness and setting Time and the last melancholy cry, they evoke an emotion which cannot be evoked by any other arrangement of colours and sounds and forms. We may call this metaphorical writing, but it is better to call it symbolical writing, because metaphors are not profound enough to be moving, when they are not symbols, and when they are symbols they are the most perfect of all, because the most subtle, outside of pure sound, and through them one can the best find out what symbols are. If one begins the  reverie  with any beautiful lines that one can remember, one finds they are like those by Burns. Begin with this line by Blake: The gay fishes on the wave when the moon sucks up the dew or these lines by Nash: Brightness falls from the air,Queens have died young and fair,Dust hath closed Helens eye or these lines by Shakespeare: Timon hath made his everlasting mansionUpon the beached verge of the salt flood;Who once a day with his embossed frothThe turbulent surge shall cover or take some line that is quite simple, that gets its beauty from its place in a story, and see how it flickers with the light of the many symbols that have given the story its beauty, as a sword-blade may flicker with the light of burning towers. All sounds, all colours, all forms, either because of their preordained energies or because of long association, evoke indefinable and yet precise emotions, or, as I prefer to think, call down among us certain disembodied powers, whose footsteps over our hearts we call emotions; and when sound, and colour, and form are in a musical relation, a beautiful relation to one another, they become, as it were, one sound, one colour, one form, and evoke an emotion that is made out of their distinct evocations and yet is one emotion. The same relation exists between all portions of every work of art, whether it be an epic or a song, and the more perfect it is, and the more various and numerous the elements that have flowed into its perfection, the more powerful will be the emotion, the power, the god it calls  among  us. Because an emotion does not exist, or does not become perceptible and active among us, till it has found its expression, in colour or in sound or in form, or in all of the se, and because no two modulations or arrangements of these evoke the same emotion, poets and painters and musicians, and in a less degree because their effects are momentary, day and night and cloud and shadow, are continually making and unmaking mankind. It is indeed only those things which seem useless or very feeble that have any power, and all those things that seem useful or strong, armies, moving wheels, modes of architecture, modes of government, speculations of the reason, would have been a little different if some mind long ago had not given itself to some emotion, as a woman gives herself to her lover, and shaped sounds or colours or forms, or all of these, into a musical relation, that their emotion might live in other minds. A little lyric evokes an emotion, and this emotion gathers others about it and melts into their being in the making of some great epic; and at last, needing an always less delicate body, or symbol, as it grows more powerful, it flows out, with all it has gathered, among the blind instincts of daily life, where it moves a power within powers, as one sees ring within ring in the stem of an old tree. This is maybe what Arthur OShaughnessy meant when he made his poets say they had built Nineveh with their sighing; and I am certainly never certain, when I hear of some war, or of some religious excitement or of some new manufacture, or of anything else that fills the ear of the world, that it has not all happened because of something that a boy piped in Thessaly. I remember once telling a seer to ask one among the gods who, as she believed, were standing about her in their symbolic bodies, what would come of a charming but seeming trivial  labour  of a friend, and the form answering, the devastation of peoples and the overwhelming of cities. I doubt indeed if the crude circumstance of the world, which seems to create all our emotions, does more than reflect, as in multiplying mirrors, the emotions that have come to solitary men in moments of poetical contemplation; or that love itself would be more than an animal hunger but for the poet and his shadow the priest, for unless we believe that outer things are the reality, we must believe that the gross is the shadow of the subtle, that things are wise before they become foolish, and secret before they cry out in the  market-place. Solitary men in moments of contemplation receive, as I think, the creative impulse from the lowest of the Nine Hierarchies, and so make and unmake mankind, and even the world itself, for does not the eye altering alter all? Our towns are copied fragments from our breast;And all mans Babylons strive but to impartThe grandeurs of his Babylonian heart. III The purpose of rhythm, it has always seemed to me, is to prolong the moment of contemplation, the moment when we are both asleep and awake, which is the one moment of creation, by hushing us with an alluring monotony, while it holds us  waking  by variety, to keep us in that state of perhaps real trance, in which the mind liberated from the pressure of the will is unfolded in symbols. If certain sensitive persons listen persistently to the ticking of a  watch,  or gaze persistently on the monotonous flashing of a light, they fall into the hypnotic trance; and rhythm is but the ticking of a watch made softer, that one must  needs  listen, and various, that one may not be swept beyond memory or grow weary of listening; while the patterns of the artist are but the monotonous flash woven to take the eyes in a  subtler  enchantment. I have heard in meditation voices that were forgotten the moment they had  spoken; and  I have been swept, when in more profound meditatio n, beyond all memory but of those things that came from beyond the threshold of waking life. I was writing once at a very symbolical and abstract poem, when my pen fell on the ground; and as I stooped to pick it up, I remembered some  phantastic  adventure that yet did not seem  phantastic, and then another like adventure, and when I asked myself when these things had happened, I found, that I was remembering my dreams for many nights. I tried to remember what I had done the day before, and then what I had done that morning; but all my waking life had perished from me, and it was only after a struggle that I came to remember it again, and as I did so that more powerful and startling life perished in its turn. Had my pen not fallen on the ground and so made me turn from the images that I was weaving into verse, I would never have known that meditation had become trance, for I would have been like one who does not know that he is passing through a wood because his eyes are on the pathway. So I think that in the making and in the understanding of a work of art, and the mo re easily if it is full of patterns and symbols and music, we are lured to the threshold of sleep, and it may be far beyond it, without knowing that we have ever set our feet upon the steps of horn or of ivory. IV Besides emotional symbols, symbols that evoke emotions alone,and in this sense all alluring or hateful things are symbols, although their relations with one another are too subtle to delight us fully, away from rhythm and pattern,there are intellectual symbols, symbols that evoke ideas alone, or ideas mingled with emotions; and outside the very definite traditions of mysticism and the less definite criticism of certain modern poets, these alone are called symbols. Most things belong to one or another kind, according to the way we speak of them and the companions we give them, for symbols, associated with ideas that are more than fragments of the shadows thrown upon the intellect by the emotions they evoke, are the playthings of the allegorist or the pedant, and soon pass away. If I say white or purple in an ordinary line of poetry, they evoke emotions so exclusively that I cannot say why they move me; but if I bring them into the same sentence with such obvious intellectual symbols a s a cross or a crown of thorns, I think of purity and sovereignty. Furthermore, innumerable meanings, which are held to white or to purple by bonds of subtle suggestion, and alike in the emotions and in the intellect, move visibly through my mind, and move invisibly beyond the threshold of sleep, casting lights and shadows of an indefinable wisdom on what had seemed before, it may be, but sterility and noisy violence. It is the intellect that decides where the reader shall ponder over the procession of the symbols, and if the symbols are merely emotional, he gazes from amid the accidents and destinies of the world; but if the symbols are intellectual too, he becomes himself a part of pure intellect, and he is himself mingled with the procession. If I watch a rushy pool in the moonlight, my emotion at its beauty is mixed with memories of the man that I have seen ploughing by its margin, or of the lovers I saw there a night ago; but if I look at the moon herself and remember any of her ancient names and meanings, I move among divine people, and thing s that have shaken off our mortality, the tower of ivory, the queen of waters, the shining  stag  among enchanted woods, the white  hare  sitting upon the hilltop, the fool of  faery  with his shining cup full of dreams, and it may be make a friend of one of these images of wonder, and meet the Lord in the air. So, too, if one is moved by Shakespeare, who is content with emotional symbols that he may come the nearer to our sympathy, one is mixed with the whole spectacle of the world; while if one is moved by Dante, or by the myth of Demeter, one is mixed into the shadow of God or of a goddess. So too one is furthest from symbols when one is busy doing this or that, but the soul moves among symbols and unfolds in symbols when trance, or madness, or deep meditation has withdrawn it from every impulse but its own. I then saw, wrote Gà ©rard de Nerval of his madness, vaguely drifting into form, plastic images of antiquity, which outlined themselves, became definite, and seemed to represent symbols of which I only seized the idea with difficulty. In an earlier  time  he would have been of that multitude, whose souls austerity withdrew, even more perfectly than madness could withdraw his soul, from hope and memory, from desire and regret, that they might reveal those processions of symbols that men bow to before altars, and  woo  with incense and offerings. But being of our time, he has been like Maeterlinck, like Villiers de IIsle-Adam in  Axà «l, like all who are preoccupied with intellectual symbols in our time, a foreshadower of the new sacred book, of which all the arts, as somebody has said, are beginning to dream. How can the arts overcome the slow dying of mens hearts that we call the progress of the world, and lay their hands upon mens heartstrings again, without becoming the garment of religion as in old times? V If people were to accept the theory that poetry moves us because of its symbolism, what change should one look for in the manner of our poetry? A return to the way of our fathers, a casting out of descriptions of nature for the sake of nature, of the moral law for the sake of the moral law, a casting out of all anecdotes and of that brooding over scientific opinion that so often extinguished the central flame in Tennyson, and of that vehemence that would make us do or not do certain things; or, in other words, we should come to understand that the beryl stone was enchanted by our fathers that it might unfold the pictures in its heart, and  not to  mirror our own excited faces, or the boughs waving outside the window. With this change of substance, this return to imagination, this understanding that the laws of art, which are the hidden laws of the world, can alone bind the imagination, would come a change of style, and we would cast out of serious poetry those energetic rhythms, as of a man running, which are the invention of the will with its eyes always on something to be done or undone; and we would seek out those wavering, meditative, organic rhythms, which are the embodiment of the imagination, that neither desires nor hates, because it has done with time, and only wishes to gaze upon some reality, some beauty; nor would it be any longer possible for anybody to deny the importance of form, in all its kinds, for although you can expound an opinion, or describe a thing, when your words are not quite well chosen, you cannot give a body to something that moves beyond the senses, unless your words are as subtle, as complex, as full of mysterious life, as the body of a flower or of a woman. The form of sincere poetry, unlike the form of the popular poetry, may indeed be sometimes obscure, or ungrammatical as in some of the best of the Songs of Innocence and Experience, but it must have the perfections that escape analysis, the subtleties that have a new meaning every day, and it must have all this whether it be but a little song made out of a moment of dreamy  indolence,  or some great epic made out of the dreams of one poet and of a hundred generations whose hands were never weary of the sword. The Symbolism of Poetry by William Butler Yeats first appeared in  The Dome in April 1900 and was reprinted in Yeats Ideas of Good and Evil, 1903.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Crisis in New England Fisheries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Crisis in New England Fisheries - Essay Example This will be done on the basis of an article titled ‘Crisis in New England Fisheries’ and will also cover stakeholder issues, perspectives, concerns, interests, consequences, and the relevance of environmental science and ethics to the current situation. The said article appears as chapter 3 in the book ‘Watersheds 4: Ten Cases in Environmental Ethics’ by Newton et al. Summary of article: This article successfully puts across the seriousness of the situation, the consequences, and the probable outcomes of remedial actions. The paper starts with the depleted state of the fishing population and industry worldwide. The authors start off with the nature of fisheries worldwide before moving on to the specific case of New England Fisheries. According to them, nearly 90% of predator fish that is preferred as sea food has been depleted worldwide. This statement has been backed by other researchers, according to the Washington Post. The newspaper states that the world will be totally devoid of seafood by 2048 if not restricted and corrected (Eilperin, 2006). The total stock has fallen from more than 4 million tons nearly two and a half million tons in the North Atlantic Region where the fisheries in question is situated. The article then provides a detailed history of the fisheries about how it began and boomed starting from the mid 1860s. The area, accord ing to the authors was ideal for fish and its prey due to the climate, vegetation, the shallow water, and the currents. The boom which provided sustenance and livelihood to a larger number of fishermen, their families, and employees was cut down by the arrival of the large factory ships from primarily from Russia and Spain. These large scale fishing factories practically wiped out all edible and in-demand fish from the area in a matter of ten years. The Federal Government belatedly put a ban, through the introduction of the Magnuson Act, on banning fishing within 200